Exactly how does a well pump work? If you reside in the city then it is highly probable you have never taken a second to ask that question. All we care about in the world, in most cases has little to do with how a well pump works. Nonetheless, it is interesting sometimes to learn how such a system does an excellent job of delivering precious life giving water into our homes.
The depth of the well dictates the kind of pump to be used. Some areas have shallow water table in which case it is easier to get water. It also becomes so much easier to channel it to the house. As for areas that have a high water table, sophisticated machinery is required to dig and draw water from underground.
How it Works
The Shallow Well
The mechanism used for pumping water from a shallow well is simple and straightforward and the jet pump is a popular choice for those that have shallow wells. This pump is placed either above the ground or in a well house and it draws the water through a suction process.
The shallow well pump works as follows:
- An electric motor powers the pump.
- The motor drives a centrifugal pump or impeller which draws the water from the water source through the narrow jet.
- The narrow jet constricts and thus increases the speed of the moving water.
- The water leaves the jet and a partial vacuum is created. This draws more water from the well.
- The venturi that is fitted behind the jet slows down inflowing water and increases pressure which then pumps more water from the well at high pressure into the pumping system.
The Deep Well
As for a well that goes beyond 25 ft, the water is still drawn using a well jet pump. However, things are done differently in this case. The impeller housing and the motor is separated from jet and the jet with its components is submerged in the water.
A simple design of a deep well jet pump is made up of one pipe that pushes the water down into the jet body. Another pipe acts as an output and is linked to the pump. This is how the deep well pump works:
- There is increased water velocity within the jet.
- A partial vacuum is created.
- Standing well water is drawn into the output pipe and then pushed back into the pump and plumbing system.
- Two mechanisms are used in a deep well jet pump. The first one is the suction at the jet and secondly is the pressure from the impeller which draws the water.
Another great way of pumping deep well water is the use of a submersible pump. It has a long cylindrical shape that fits perfectly with the well casting interior. Its sealed pump motor which is controlled by wires is connected to a source of power at the upper ground. Inside the pump is a series of impellers that are stacked together and separated by a diffuser. The water is pushed up the pipe into the plumbing system by the impellers.
A Final Word
A shallow well jet pump, deep well jet pump and a submersible pump are all effective in drawing water. However, the submersible well pump is more efficient when it comes to the amount of water delivered. Its major problem though is that the entire unit has to be pulled out of the well casing when the motor has problems.